Dr. Cornelius Rhoads -- under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations -- infects human subjects with cancer cells. He later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients.
The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black men diagnosed with syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment, and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the progression and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis. Their families were never told that they could have been treated.
A Humanist Manifesto is published with 34 prominent signatories at the time:
[note: This link no longer works, but the researcher can enter "humanistmanifesto" into Google and get the cached page.]
(A) "A method for Remote Control of Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System", a monograph by Drs. E.L. Chaffee and R.U. Light.
(B) Experiments in Distant Influence, a book by Soviet Professor Leonid L. Vasiliev. He also wrote the article "Critical Evaluation of the Hypnogenic Method" concerning the work of Dr. I. F. Tomashevsky on experiments in remote control of the brain.
The Pellagra Incident. After millions of individuals die from Pellagra over a span of 2 decades, the U.S. Public Health Service finally acts to stem the disease. The director of the agency admits it had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency, but failed to act since most of the deaths occurred within poverty-stricken black populations.
400 prisoners in Chicago are infected with malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs to combat the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg cite this American study to defend their own actions during the Holocaust.
Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments on approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue until 1945 and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become human guinea pigs rather than serve on active duty.
In response to Japan's full-scale germ warfare program, the U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD.
U.S. Navy uses human subjects to test gas masks and clothing. Individuals were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to mustard gas and lewisite.
(A) After World War II, the Allies discovered the Japanese had been developing a "death ray" utilizing very short radio waves focused into a high power beam. Tests were done on animals. The Japanese denied ever testing it on humans. (From the Strategic Bombing Survey, Imperial War Museum, London. Cited with photocopies in "Japanese Death Ray", by Peter Lewis, Resonance#11, pp 5-9)
(B) Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and offer them immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top-secret government projects in the United States.
(C) "Program F" is implemented by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This is the most extensive U.S. study of the health effects of fluoride, which was the key chemical component in atomic bomb production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride causes marked adverse effects to the central nervous system. But much of the information is squelched in the name of "national security" because of fear that lawsuits would undermine full-scale production of atomic bombs.